OnestopGate   OnestopGate
   Thursday, February 29, 2024 Login  
Home | Overview | Syllabus | Tutorials | FAQs | Downloads | Recommended Websites | Advertise | Payments | Contact Us | Forum

GATE Resources
Gate Articles
Gate Books
Gate Colleges 
Gate Downloads 
Gate Faqs
Gate Jobs
Gate News 
Gate Sample Papers
Training Institutes

GATE Overview
GATE Eligibility
Structure Of GATE
GATE Coaching Centers
Colleges Providing M.Tech/M.E.
GATE Score
GATE Results
PG with Scholarships
Article On GATE
Admission Process For M.Tech/ MCP-PhD
GATE Topper 2012-13
GATE Forum

GATE 2025 Exclusive
Organizing Institute
Important Dates
How to Apply
Discipline Codes
GATE 2025 Exam Structure

GATE 2025 Syllabus
Aerospace Engg..
Agricultural Engg..
Architecture and Planning
Chemical Engg..
Civil Engg..
Computer Science / IT
Electronics & Communication Engg..
Electrical Engg..
Engineering Sciences
Geology and Geophysics
Instrumentation Engineering
Life Sciences
Mechanical Engg..
Metallurgical Engg..
Mining Engg..
Production & Industrial Engg..
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Textile Engineering and Fibre Science

GATE Study Material
Aerospace Engg..
Agricultural Engg..
Chemical Engg..
Civil Engg..
Computer Science / IT
Electronics & Communication Engg..
Electrical Engg..
Engineering Sciences
Instrumentation Engg..
Life Sciences
Mechanical Engg..
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Textile Engineering  and Fibre Science

GATE Preparation
GATE Pattern
GATE Tips N Tricks
Compare Evaluation
Sample Papers 
Gate Downloads 
Experts View

CEED 2013
CEED Exams
Application Forms
Important Dates
Contact Address
Examination Centres
CEED Sample Papers

Discuss GATE
GATE Forum
Exam Cities
Contact Details
Bank Details

Contact Us

Home » GATE Study Material » Civil Engineering » Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Dynamics

Looking for GATE Preparation Material? Join & Get here now!

** Gate 2013 Question Papers.. ** CEED 2013 Results.. ** Gate 2013 Question Papers With Solutions.. ** GATE 2013 CUT-OFFs.. ** GATE 2013 Results.. **

Fluid Dynamics

1. Fluid Dynamics


  • Introduce concepts necessary to analyse fluids in motion
  • Identify differences between Steady/unsteady uniform/non-uniform compressible/incompressible flow
  • Demonstrate streamlines and stream tubes
  • Introduce the Continuity principle through conservation of mass and control volumes
  • Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation
  • Demonstrate practical uses of the Bernoulli and continuity equation in the analysis of flow
  • Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid
  • Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids


This section discusses the analysis of fluid in motion - fluid dynamics. The motion of fluids can be predicted in the same way as the motion of solids are predicted using the fundamental laws of physics together with the physical properties of the fluid.

It is not difficult to envisage a very complex fluid flow. Spray behind a car; waves on beaches; hurricanes and tornadoes or any other atmospheric phenomenon are all example of highly complex fluid flows which can be analysed with varying degrees of success (in some cases hardly at all!). There are many common situations which are easily analysed.

2. Uniform Flow, Steady Flow

It is possible - and useful - to classify the type of flow which is being examined into small number of groups.

If we look at a fluid flowing under normal circumstances - a river for example - the conditions at one point will vary from those at another point (e.g. different velocity) we have non-uniform flow. If the conditions at one point vary as time passes then we have unsteady flow.

Under some circumstances the flow will not be as changeable as this. He following terms describe the states which are used to classify fluid flow:

  • uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every point in the fluid it is said to be uniform.
  • non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every point the flow is non-uniform. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform - as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary, usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the cross-section of the stream of fluid is constant the flow is considered uniform.)
  • steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity, pressure and cross-section) may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time.
  • unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time, the flow is described as unsteady. (In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and pressure, but if the average values are constant, the flow is considered steady.

Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four type:

  1. Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.
  2. Steady non-uniform flow. Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet - velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.
  3. Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off.
  4. Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel.

If you imaging the flow in each of the above classes you may imagine that one class is more complex than another. And this is the case - steady uniform flow is by far the most simple of the four. You will then be pleased to hear that this course is restricted to only this class of flow. We will not be encountering any non-uniform or unsteady effects in any of the examples (except for one or two quasi-time dependent problems which can be treated at steady).

3. Compressible or Incompressible

All fluids are compressible - even water - their density will change as pressure changes. Under steady conditions, and provided that the changes in pressure are small, it is usually possible to simplify analysis of the flow by assuming it is incompressible and has constant density. As you will appreciate, liquids are quite difficult to compress - so under most steady conditions they are treated as incompressible. In some unsteady conditions very high pressure differences can occur and it is necessary to take these into account - even for liquids. Gasses, on the contrary, are very easily compressed, it is essential in most cases to treat these as compressible, taking changes in pressure into account.

4. Three-dimensional flow

Although in general all fluids flow three-dimensionally, with pressures and velocities and other flow properties varying in all directions, in many cases the greatest changes only occur in two directions or even only in one. In these cases changes in the other direction can be effectively ignored making analysis much more simple.

Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as velocity, pressure, depth etc.) at a given instant in time only vary in the direction of flow and not across the cross-section. The flow may be unsteady, in this case the parameter vary in time but still not across the cross-section. An example of one-dimensional flow is the flow in a pipe. Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall - yet non-zero in the centre - there is a difference of parameters across the cross-section. Should this be treated as two-dimensional flow? Possibly - but it is only necessary if very high accuracy is required. A correction factor is then usually applied.



One dimensional flow in a pipe.

Flow is two-dimensional if it can be assumed that the flow parameters vary in the direction of flow and in one direction at right angles to this direction. Streamlines in two-dimensional flow are curved lines on a plane and are the same on all parallel planes. An example is flow over a weir foe which typical streamlines can be seen in the figure below. Over the majority of the length of the weir the flow is the same - only at the two ends does it change slightly. Here correction factors may be applied.



Two-dimensional flow over a weir.

In this course we will only be considering steady, incompressible one and two-dimensional flow.

5. Streamlines and streamtubes

In analysing fluid flow it is useful to visualise the flow pattern. This can be done by drawing lines joining points of equal velocity - velocity contours. These lines are know as streamlines. Here is a simple example of the streamlines around a cross-section of an aircraft wing shaped body:



Streamlines around a wing shaped body

When fluid is flowing past a solid boundary, e.g. the surface of an aerofoil or the wall of a pipe, fluid obviously does not flow into or out of the surface. So very close to a boundary wall the flow direction must be parallel to the boundary.

  • Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to that boundary

At all points the direction of the streamline is the direction of the fluid velocity: this is how they are defined. Close to the wall the velocity is parallel to the wall so the streamline is also parallel to the wall.

It is also important to recognise that the position of streamlines can change with time - this is the case in unsteady flow. In steady flow, the position of streamlines does not change.

Some things to know about streamlines

  • Because the fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines, fluid can not cross a streamline.

  • Streamlines can not cross each other. If they were to cross this would indicate two different velocities at the same point. This is not physically possible.

  • The above point implies that any particles of fluid starting on one streamline will stay on that same streamline throughout the fluid.

A useful technique in fluid flow analysis is to consider only a part of the total fluid in isolation from the rest. This can be done by imagining a tubular surface formed by streamlines along which the fluid flows. This tubular surface is known as a streamtube.



A Streamtube

And in a two-dimensional flow we have a streamtube which is flat (in the plane of the paper):



A two dimensional version of the streamtube
The "walls" of a streamtube are made of streamlines. As we have seen above, fluid cannot flow across a streamline, so fluid cannot cross a streamtube wall. The streamtube can often be viewed as a solid walled pipe. A streamtube is not a pipe - it differs in unsteady flow as the walls will move with time. And it differs because the "wall" is moving with the fluid

Discussion Center







Email ID:

  Forgot Password?
 New User? Register!

Get 9,000+ Interview Questions & Answers in an eBook. Interview Question & Answer Guide
  • 9,000+ Interview Questions
  • All Questions Answered
  • 5 FREE Bonuses
  • Free Upgrades
  • Gate Books
  • Training Institutes
  • Gate FAQs
  • Mechanical Engineeering Books
  • Robotics Automations Engineering Books
  • Civil Engineering Books
  • Chemical Engineering Books
  • Environmental Engineering Books
  • Electrical Engineering Books
  • Electronics Engineering Books
  • Information Technology Books
  • Software Engineering Books
  • GATE Preparation Books
  • Exciting Offers

    GATE Exam, Gate 2009, Gate Papers, Gate Preparation & Related Pages

    GATE Overview | GATE Eligibility | Structure Of GATE | GATE Training Institutes | Colleges Providing M.Tech/M.E. | GATE Score | GATE Results | PG with Scholarships | Article On GATE | GATE Forum | GATE 2009 Exclusive | GATE 2009 Syllabus | GATE Organizing Institute | Important Dates for GATE Exam | How to Apply for GATE | Discipline / Branch Codes | GATE Syllabus for Aerospace Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Agricultural Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Architecture and Planning | GATE Syllabus for Chemical Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Chemistry | GATE Syllabus for Civil Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Computer Science / IT | GATE Syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Engineering Sciences | GATE Syllabus for Geology and Geophysics | GATE Syllabus for Instrumentation Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Life Sciences | GATE Syllabus for Mathematics | GATE Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Metallurgical Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Mining Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Physics | GATE Syllabus for Production and Industrial Engineering | GATE Syllabus for Pharmaceutical Sciences | GATE Syllabus for Textile Engineering and Fibre Science | GATE Preparation | GATE Pattern | GATE Tips & Tricks | GATE Compare Evaluation | GATE Sample Papers | GATE Downloads | Experts View on GATE | CEED 2009 | CEED 2009 Exam | Eligibility for CEED Exam | Application forms of CEED Exam | Important Dates of CEED Exam | Contact Address for CEED Exam | CEED Examination Centres | CEED Sample Papers | Discuss GATE | GATE Forum of | GATE Exam Cities | Contact Details for GATE | Bank Details for GATE | GATE Miscellaneous Info | GATE FAQs | Advertisement on GATE | Contact Us on OneStopGATE |
    Copyright © 2024. One Stop All rights reserved Testimonials |Link To Us |Sitemap |Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions|About Us
    Our Portals : Academic Tutorials | Best eBooksworld | Beyond Stats | City Details | Interview Questions | India Job Forum | Excellent Mobiles | Free Bangalore | Give Me The Code | Gog Logo | Free Classifieds | Jobs Assist | Interview Questions | One Stop FAQs | One Stop GATE | One Stop GRE | One Stop IAS | One Stop MBA | One Stop SAP | One Stop Testing | Web Hosting | Quick Site Kit | Sirf Dosti | Source Codes World | Tasty Food | Tech Archive | Software Testing Interview Questions | Free Online Exams | The Galz | Top Masala | Vyom | Vyom eBooks | Vyom International | Vyom Links | Vyoms | Vyom World
    C Interview Questions | C++ Interview Questions | Send Free SMS | Placement Papers | SMS Jokes | Cool Forwards | Romantic Shayari